Archive for June, 2019

Paddy Healy: Physicist and Academic


Lecturer And Researcher in Physics (Acoustics) (1966-2010) at DIT Kevin St (Now Retired)

Academic Research Interest: Musical Instrument Acoustics

Author “Resonant Vibrations of The Irish Folk Harp”-MSc Major Thesis (Dublin University-Trinity College)  Thesis of Paddy Healy cannot be accessed by clicking below, the link must be PASTED INTO Search Engine


The Bunting Harp Collection: A Digital Commission

Wednesday, 24 July 2019, 4.00pm

Music Network (MN) and The Irish Traditional Music Archive (ITMA) are offering an opportunity for a professional sound or visual artist to create an installation work, using as its inspiration the historically significant harp tunes collected in 1792 by Edward Bunting.

Artists are invited to submit proposals outlining their creative response to a range of multimedia digital materials relating to the collection held by MN, ITMA, and Special Collections & Archives, Queen’s University Belfast (QUB). Materials are comprised of digitised 18th century publication and manuscript sources, and 21st century audio-visual harp studio performances.

This is a unique opportunity for the recipient to create and present new work through the exploration, discovery and creative re-use of archival materials, and to bring this valuable collection to the attention of the wider public.


Paddy Healy     Musical Instrument Acoustics

Recommended Citation

Healy, P. (1993). Resonant vibrations of the Irish Folk Harp. Masters Thesis. University of Dublin.

doi :10.21427/7w5y-hq38


Resonant Vibrations of the Irish Folk Harp
Author: Patrick Healy
Publication: Other Resources

Joint Research Supervisor with Prof Ita Hogan-Beausang, Conservatory of Music and Drama, DIT, of

“Microtonal Systems and Guitar Composition”  M Phil Research Thesis of Mike Neilsen, Professional Guitarist, DIT Conservatory of Music and Drama


Thesis of Mike Neilsen can be accessed by simply clicking on the link below

Dr Mike Neilsen continued the study above to PhD level and now lectures in guitar at Conservatory of Music and Drama, Tecnological University of Dublin (formerly DIT)

Paddy Healy is Former member of Governing Body and of Academic Council DIT (Now Technological University of Dublin).

He has been a member of the Council of Convocation of the National University of Ireland.

He has served for a number of years on The Higher Education and Research Sub-Committee of Education International, the international representative body for teachers and lecturers.

He has represented  TUI on the European Trade Union Committee for Education (ETUCE).

Paddy Healy was a member of the international Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD (TUAC) on education matters for 6 years.

He is  Convenor of The Campaign for Academic Freedom which is defending academic freedom  in Universities and Institutes of Technology against attempts to restrict or control free expression of opinion and free choice of scholarship, including research area, by academics. Rampant managerialism and commodification of learning have posed a threat to this crucial democratic principle. He organised and chaired the Gathering for Academic Freedom which took place in the Gresham Hotel on January 22, 2010. The Gathering was attended by 200 academics from virtually all third level institutions in the state.

Education      086-4183732

Born in Clonmel Co Tipperary  1945,

Attended Presentation Convent Primary School (Junior and Senior Infants)

Attended St Peter and Paul’s CBS Primary School

Won County Council Scholarship to Secondary School

Attended  Clonmel CBS HIgh  School

Won County Council Scholarship to University on leaving Certificate performance

Attended University College Dublin 1962-1966

(Advised Students for Democratic Action 1967)

Graduated in Physics From UCD 1966 ,

Lectured in Physics(acoustics) DIT until retirement in 2010

Married to Dr Anne O’Donnell (Teacher and Lecturer in Mathematics and Computing), ; Originally from Clogher, Barnesmore, Donegal Town

Tá suim mhór ag Paddy i dteanga agus i litríocht na Gaeilge- morán ama caite aige sa Rinn, i  gChúl Aodha, agus lena bhean Áine i nGleann Cholm Chille is ar Oileán Thoraí i gCondae Dún na NGall

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Worldwide the poor (that’s 90% of us) are getting poorer and the super-rich (0.1%) who rule the world are getting very much richer


Global wealth: 1% own 48%; 10% own 87% and bottom 50% own less than 1%

90% are now not earning enough to save anything at all, especially to buy property and so build up wealth.  The poor (that’s 90% of us) are getting poorer and the super-rich (0.1%) who rule the world are getting very much richer.

 Michael Roberts   Marxist Economist

This time last year, I outlined the results of the Global Wealth report published by Credit Suisse Bank (see my post,  Compiled by Tony Shorrocks and Jim Davies, formerly at the UN, the report last year showed that the top 1% owned 41% of all the personal wealth in the world; the top 10% owned 86% and the bottom 50% of owned less than 1% of all the wealth.  This staggering level of inequality certainly attracted interest and my post on this was the most popularly viewed one on my blog ever.

Now Credit Suisse have published its 2014 report (cs_global_wealth_report_2014_vF) compiled by the same academics.  According to the latest calculations, global wealth inequality has got even worse.  Taken together, the bottom half of the global population still own less than 1% of total wealth.  And the richest 10% still own more or less the same, now 87%.  But the top 1% now own 48% of all global personal wealth!  If you like a soundbite: the top 1% of adults in the world own nearly half of all personal wealth.  There seems to be no stopping the growing inequality of wealth in the world.

The latest analysis comprises the wealth holdings of 4.7 billion adults across more than 200 countries – from billionaires in the top echelon to the middle and bottom sections of the wealth pyramid, which other studies often overlook.  It really is the most comprehensive and revealing account of global personal wealth.

The funny thing is that it does not take all that much wealth to get into the top 1% or top 10%,  Once debts have been subtracted, a person needs only $3,650 to be among the wealthiest half of the world’s citizens. However, about $77,000 is required to be a member of the top 10% of global wealth holders and $798,000 to belong to the top 1%.  So if you own a home in London (average value now $750,000) on your own and without a mortgage, you are part of the top 1% and many people can claim to have $77,000 worth of property after the mortgage in the US and Europe.  Do you feel rich if you do?  This just shows how poor the vast majority of people in the world are: with no property, no cash and certainly no stocks and bonds!

Global household wealth has now reached $263 trillion, or about four times the annual product of the world’s working population.  The average wealth per adult is now $56,000, a jump of $3,450, or the biggest annual increase since the global financial crisis.  Global wealth now stands 20% above its pre-crisis peak and 39% above its 2008 low.  On a regional basis, North America and Europe led the gains with increases of about 11%. In contrast, aggregate wealth in Latin America was largely unchanged, whereas Asia-Pacific (including China and India) recorded a small rise of around 3%. Excluding Japan, the region recorded a gain of about 4%, with Chinese wealth rising by 3.5% and Indian wealth falling  1%.

The number of dollar millionaires has increased significantly since 2000, rising by 164% over the period, to 34.8 million. The US has 41% of all global millionaires.  According to the report, the number of global millionaires could exceed 53 million in 2019, a rise of more than 18 million. China could see its number nearly doubling by 2019, to 2.3 million adults. Brazil and Mexico will underpin the number of millionaires in Latin America, which could reach 921,000 in five years.

What is also valuable in this year’s report is a measure of median wealth (the 50% point in wealth distribution) as well as mean average wealth.  Global median wealth has been falling every year since 2010, while mean wealth has been rising. The poor are getting poorer and rich are getting richer.  And the top 1% are getting further away from the top 10%.

The report also shows that wealth inequality is much higher than income inequality and this is a worldwide phenomenon. This is important because there is always much talk about income inequality and this being due to people having better education and skills etc.  But it is wealth that really matters and that is down more to inheritance and luck rather than skill, something the report discusses.

The report finds that inequality in both wealth and income trended downward globally from the late 1920s to the 1970s and then started rising.   This U-shape in the 20th century confirms the findings of Thomas Piketty in his now famous book on inequality, Capital in the 21st century (see my post

That brings me to a brand new study by Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman, close colleagues of Piketty, on the wealth inequality in the US since 1913 (SaezZucman2014Slides).  The study combines income tax returns with Flow of Funds data to estimate the distribution of household wealth.  Again they confirm the Credit Suisse study and Pilketty’s work (which uses the same data) that wealth concentration has followed a U-shaped evolution over the last 100 years: it was high in the beginning of the 20th century, fell from 1929 to 1978 and has continuously increased since then.

Saez and Zucman make the point that the rise of wealth inequality is almost entirely due to the rise of the top 0.1% wealth (the uber-rich) share, from 7% in 1979 to 22% in 2012, a level almost as high as in 1929. The bottom 90% wealth share increased up to the mid-1980s and then steadily declined (see graph below).


And the main reason that happened is that the 90% are now not earning enough to save anything at all, especially to buy property and so build up wealth.  The poor (that’s 90% of us) are getting poorer and the super-rich (0.1%) who rule the world are getting very much richer.

  1. I’ll be meeting Tony Shorrocks, one of the authors of the Credit Suisse report, in a week or so; if you have any questions for him, let me know.


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Restore Pay, Allowances,Conditions and Pensions of the Defence Forces

Shocking Endangerment of Irish People By Government. Varadkar is Minister for Defence. Pay, Pensions, Allowances, Conditions of Service Must Fully Be Restored IMMEDIATELY


As Members of Defence Forces leave in droves due to appalling pay and conditions and existing vessels are tied due to lack of staff:

Confirmed by Taoiseach Who is Also Minister for Defence in Dáil: Construction of Multi-Role Vessel has been put Out to Tender

 “The 200 million Euro MRV ship could easily accommodate a whole infantry company and all its equipment, who could be launched onshore by landing craft. The ship would also have the capability to launch helicopters from its flight deck”.-Irish Examiner  October, 2017


Another Ship To Be Tied up though Country is awash with Drugs
Irish Examiner, Feb 15, By Sean O’Riordan

Defence Correspondent

Cathal Berry, former second-in-command of the elite Army Ranger Wing, and who has just been elected to the Dáil as an Independent, says urgent action is needed to get all the ships operational.

We need to get these ships back in the water as the country is awash with drugs and we simply don’t have the sailors to adequately patrol our seas, especially with Britain leaving the EU.

The Naval Service is so under-resourced that there are fears it won’t be able to combat maritime drug shipments while at the same time adequately patrolling EU fishery waters post-Brexit.

Concerns have also been raised that it may have to tie up yet another ship, due to debilitating manpower shortages.

RACO, the organisation that represents the country’s military officers, said that despite tying up LÉ Eithne and LÉ Orla last June, the manpower crisis is deepening by the day and “there are concerns that the tying-up of a further ship could be imminent”.

RACO general secretary, Commandant Conor King, said it is worrying that even the remaining ships “are routinely operating on the edge of the minimum workable crewing numbers”.

He pointed out that LÉ Ciara was on sailing order on December 30, but failed to leave port until January 1 due to illness/injury of crew members.

“She was a small number of personnel short of the minimum safety crew of 34. This is the minimum safe number to crew a ship for damage control, fire suppression, and other critical safety considerations,” Comdt King said.

The officer said this “one man deep” phenomenon (if one person is unavailable, the mission cannot proceed) has left the Naval Service in what is described by experts as a “fragile” state.

“When a vessel routinely operates at these lower manning levels, then a crew member becoming sick or getting injured can potentially affect the ship’s operations. Ships need to be robustly manned, given the nature of a routine MDSO (Maritime Defence and Security Operations) patrol,” he said.

“When a ship’s crew is diminished like this, it must get relief personnel, either from other ships or from personnel who are not supposed to be on sea rotation, thereby exacerbating an already stressed working environment.”

He said this routine disruption to a person’s shore time is causing them to seek alternative employment as a result of the disturbance to their families, and leads to an increase in the frequency of duties for remaining personnel ashore.

“This is untenable, and all the more alarming when one considers that the Naval Service has already had to tie up two of its fleet and LÉ Róisín is in dry dock for her midlife refit. This means that three ships, or one third of the entire fleet, are non- operational,” said Comdt King.

Cathal Berry, former second-in-command of the elite Army Ranger Wing, and who has just been elected to the Dáil as an Independent, says urgent action is needed to get all the ships operational.

We need to get these ships back in the water as the country is awash with drugs and we simply don’t have the sailors to adequately patrol our seas, especially with Britain leaving the EU.

To protect UK maritime territory, its government has ordered two more patrol ships and two surveillance aircraft.

It has also earmarked a further 22 boats that can be deployed at short notice in the event of skirmishes between British trawlermen and their EU counterparts.

In 2018, French and British boats clashed over access to shellfish off the coast of Normandy, and last year it was alleged that French fishermen had attacked Devon-based fishing boats with petrol bombs, as another shellfish ‘war’ broke out in the English Channel.

Fears have been raised that EU-registered fishing boats could clash with British ones inside or on the edge of the Irish maritime patrol area.

Mr Berry said that when it comes to negotiating a new common fisheries policy with the the UK, if we don’t immediately bolster our Naval Service “we will be laughed out of the room”.

“The British will realise we can’t back up what we’re saying,” he said. “Around 99% of the drugs coming into this country do so by sea. The deterrent isn’t there any more because not enough of our ships can go out to sea.”

———————————————————-Record Number Leaving Defence Forces

Sean O’Riordain, Irish Examiner Defence Correspondent,Thursday, January 09, 2020 –

A record number of personnel left the Defence Forces last year — and there are fears the retention crisis could get worse as the pace of the exodus increases in 2020.

Figures obtained by the Irish Examiner show around 850 personnel were discharged from the Army, Naval Service, and Air Corps in 2019.

This compares to 473 in 2013, 481 in 2014, 571 in 2015, 679 in 2016, 742 in 2017, and 731 in 2018.

Both representative associations — Raco for the officers and PDForra for enlisted personnel — consistently say the Defence Forces are not capable of recruiting their way out of the crisis.

This is borne out by the latest figures which show that 605 personnel were recruited last year, leaving a net loss of 245 people.

More than 10% of the recruits inducted in 2019 also left before finalising training. They are included in the overall discharge figure of 850.

PDForra president Mark Keane said 2020 could be even worse as a large percentage of his membership will reach either 21 or 31 years’ service this year, at which time they will be eligible for pensions.

“The Defence Forces are at present trying to recruit their way out of the ongoing crisis, something which has yielded no meaningful results,” said Mr Keane.

He said the Department of Defence had only made “piecemeal attempts” to address the ongoing crisis.

This was a reference to the increase in some allowances for military personnel, but no attempt to increase their core pay, which is the lowest of any public servants.

“This has resulted in our members voting with their feet and leaving the Defence Forces in unprecedented numbers. Many have purchased their discharge and they are taking up employment in the private sector where their skillset and experience is highly sought after,” he said.

Some officers are paying up to €67,000 to buy their way out of their military careers, it emerged this week.

“There’s a skills deficit in many areas now,” said Mr Keane. “We’re losing corporate knowledge by the day which you simply can’t replace overnight.”

He said the Government promised last October to publish findings on a review of pay for some experienced technicians.

It still has not been published, even though it was supposed to stem the tide of highly skilled people leaving from an already depleted pool of the skill sets the Defence Forces need to function properly,” said the PDForra president.

Raco general secretary Cmdt Conor King said most who have the vast majority who’d left are highly trained and experienced.

“This replacement of experience with novices has serious implications for risk and governance,” he said.

Last May, Raco reported to the Oireachtas committee on foreign affairs, trade, and defence that 2018 had seen a reduction in Defence Forces strength of 120 personnel.

“The fact this strength reduction has doubled in 2019 proves that the Department of Defence’s prioritisation of recruitment over any positive retention policies is failing the Defence Forces and failing the State,” said Cmdt King.

Raco is calling on the Government to introduce retention measures before the crisis becomes unfixable.

Figures released to the Irish Examiner show that t more than 120 people working for the Defence Forces have to rely on benefits to make ends meet.

According to the Department of Social Protection, 124 people working in the Defence Forces receive the Working Family Payment.

Of these, 54 are public servants employed by the Defence Forces and the balance, 70, are described as army, navy or air corps personnel.

Up to June this year, there were just over 52,000 low- income families with at least one child in receipt of the WFP. They received an average tax-free payment of around €135 a week.

Members of the Defence Forces who receive it are also eligible for other benefits.


—————————————————————-Tax Credit for 80 Days Per year at Sea is A new Strategy to hold Down Pay and Conditions of Defence Forces and Public Service Generally

The use by government of a Tax credit rather than a pay increase or a pensionable allowance to increase remuneration has serious consequences for all defence forces staff and, indeed, public service workers generally.

Clearly it is part of a new government strategy  to prevent staff shortages being used by employees to drive up pay or even to  force full immediate or more rapid restoration of cuts in pay and pensions

Disadvantages for Staff

  1. It is not a pensionable increase in pay or allowances
  2. IT IS TEMPORARY and specific task related remuneration. It is very narrow in application-only for those who spend a minimum of 80 days at sea in the year concerned. If in a subsequent year a sailor spent 79 days at sea it would disappear!
  3. It is easier for government to prevent it being successfully claimed by other defence force personnel and others—it is a strategic device to keep down public service pay generally by plugging gaps in staffing  in an ad hoc and retractable way which is completely at the discretion of government
  4. Even if Labour Relations Committee recommended its application to others, it would be easyier for Govt to reject the recommendation(Is it within terms of reference of LRC)
  5. Government introduced it unilaterally  and could withdraw it unilaterally
  6. Government will use this “concession” to help it resist claims for increases in pay pensions and allowances

 —————————————————————RTE: Scaling back of air ambulance will not put lives at risk, Taoiseach says

“There were no air ambulances at All 6 years ago”-Varadkar

Irish Times:Shortage of pilots forces Air Corps to cut back on emergency service it provides to Health Services Executive  Conor Lally, Nov 16

The Representative Association of Commissioned Officers (Raco) and PDForra, the organisation representing rank-and-file Defence Forces members, have said remuneration and conditions must be improved.

Senior military personnel who would normally manage the EAS, which operates out of Custume Barracks, Athlone, Co Westmeath, had been stepping in to fly missions to ensure the service was maintained.

However, informed sources said the shortage of pilots had now reached a critical level and senior Defence Forces management had been left with no option but to effectively close the service one day per week


     Leaders Question By Seamus Healy TD Calling for Full and Immediate Restoration of Defence Forces Pay and Conditions and Reply by Minister Richard Bruton TD on behalf of Government

Deputy Seamus Healy

The public is rightly and intensely proud of our Defence Forces. Irish soldiers have given their lives in the service of peace around the world, protecting some of the world’s most vulnerable citizens. Thousands of their families at home have endured the absence of a father or a mother during the long period of overseas service. Our Air Corps fly air ambulances and save hundreds of lives annually. The Naval Service patrols the equivalent of 220 million acres of sea, over 12 times the landmass of Ireland and 15% of total European fisheries. The navy has intercepted some of the largest drugs shipments in EU waters and is a vital component in Ireland’s war on organised crime and drug gangs.

Our Defence Forces, however, are in deep crisis. In particular, there is a recruitment and retention crisis. This week the Chief of Staff, not known for his outspokenness, sent a coded message to the Government when he said, “Some great people are making the choice to leave the organisation and the level and trend in the churn is a matter of concern for me”. The Representative Association of Commissioned Officers, RACO, president made the point more clearly when he said ships are unable to go sea, aircraft are not flying and units are operating below strength across the board.

The designated strength of the Defence Forces is 9,500 personnel. Its current strength is below that number by as much as 1,000. Already this year, there have been 558 discharges. The turnover rate referred to by the Chief of Staff is at 10.3%, which is devastating for our Defence Forces. That rate of turnover means that the Defence Forces will never return to full strength and will fall to 7,500 by 2030. The situation is so bad that even recruits in training are paying to get out of the services.

The Government is presiding over a situation where our Defence Forces personnel are the lowest-paid workers in the public service with some earning less than the minimum wage and up to 85% earning less than the average industrial wage.

In view of the understrength numbers, the significant turnover rate, the large number of personnel, including new recruits, leaving the service, and the number of naval protection vessels out of commission due to the lack of personnel and the underspend in the Department of Defence, will the Government improve the pay conditions and allowances of the Defence Forces, including the immediate and full restoration of all cuts in pay allowances and services? Will the Government increase immediately the basic minimum hourly rate of pay to at least the living wage ? Will the Government withdraw the tender for the €200 million multi-role warship to use that money to improve the pay, conditions and allowances of our personnel?


Deputy Richard Bruton

I join with Deputy Healy in recognising the debt that we owe to all those who work in the Defence Forces. Their work, particularly abroad, has made us all proud and contributed to Ireland’s international reputation. This must be acknowledged.

The Government has recognised that there are particular problems in the Defence Forces. This is why there was a comprehensive examination undertaken by the Public Service Pay Commission of the pay conditions in the Defence Forces. That work has been done. The commission’s report has been accepted by the Government and by RACO. That provides for a whole series of improvements in pay conditions in the Defence Forces. It has been accompanied by a detailed implementation plan, setting out how that will be done.

The Deputy will be aware of some of the changes such as the 10% increase in the military service allowance, immediate restoration of allowances to the pre-Haddington Road agreement level, the reinstatement of several allowances specific to the Defence Forces such as the security duty allowance, the patrol duty allowance, the Army Ranger Wing allowance, as well as payments to bomb disposal teams. There has also been a return to premium rates for weekend duties and the re-establishment of the service commitment scheme for Air Corps pilots. Another significant development that recognises the important role of the Defence Forces is the recognition that they need to be brought within the wider industrial relations framework. The Government welcomes the decision by the executive of the Irish Congress of Trade Unions to accept in principle the application by the Permanent Defence Force Other Ranks Representative Association, PDFORRA, for associate membership. That is an important recognition of the role of the Defence Forces and will provide an outlet to ensure the concerns raised are adequately responded to. The Minister of State is working to facilitate that.

The Deputy raised the issue of particular moneys allocated for ships or underspend being allocated to pay. Unfortunately, that is not possible. We have a unified public pay policy that is negotiated and settled. It is not at the discretion of an individual Minister to take moneys which have been voted for one purpose and then to allocate them to pay increases. There is good reason for that. There must be a consistent public pay policy. At the same time, it must be able to deal with particular challenges. The Public Service Pay Commission report did address particular issues in the Defence Forces within a coherent pay policy. That mechanism has been used and will bring improvements.


Deputy Seamus Healy


Unfortunately, the Minister’s reply is a further exercise in the Government burrowing its head in the sand instead of dealing with this issue. That is certainly not the way forward. Tinkering at the edges will not solve this problem. The problem is so serious that Uachtarán na hÉireann, Michael D. Higgins, has felt the need to intervene publicly on this issue.

An Ceann Comhairle

It is not in order to bring the statements of the President into debate in the House. It is a long-standing tradition that we do not.

Deputy Mick Barry

The President brought them into the debate.


Deputy Seamus Healy

It is important to realise the serious nature of the crisis in our Defence Forces and the necessity for the Government to deal immediately with this issue. It is open to the Government to use an exceptional measure outside of any public service pay agreement to improve pay, conditions and allowances for serving members of the Defence Forces. On the basis of the Government’s lack of action on this issue in the past and the Minister’s response, I am strongly of the view that Defence Forces personnel should pursue full trade union status and recognition to ensure their pay, conditions of service and allowances are improved.


Deputy Richard Bruton

The Government is acutely aware of the needs in the Defence Forces. That is why the general pay round made provision for a 7% increase with particular emphasis on increases for the lower-paid. Above and beyond that, the Public Service Pay Commission examination was established, recognising the particular difficulties in the Defence Forces.

While I will not repeat them, significant changes have been introduced and they have been accepted by RACO. That provides the basis for moving forward in this area. As there is a detailed implementation plan, people know where they stand in terms of the delivery in this area.

The Deputy must be aware that the Minister for Finance and for Public Expenditure and Reform, when he comes here to the House in a couple of weeks’ time, must balance all of the different issues such as the demands for additional pay, the demands for additional services, the pressure on infrastructure and the uncertainties we face internationally. The challenge the Minister faces is t

————————————————————President and Supreme Commander Criticised on Pay For Defence Forces by Government Ministers-Irish Examiner

Mr Higgins’s comments on Wednesday night caused widespread surprise, anger, and bemusement in Government circles yesterday over what was seen as “interference” in political matters.

 “Of course they were deeply unhelpful,” one senior minister said. “We are trying to hold a public pay deal together with sticky tape and Blu-Tack. This will only heighten the pressure on us to loosen the purse strings even further.”

(That is what they said to the Nurses before They took Strike Action-PH)

Full Irish Examiner Article, Friday, September 13

By Daniel McConnell, Fiachra Ó Cionnaith, and Elaine Loughlin

Mr Higgins’s comments on Wednesday night caused widespread surprise, anger, and bemusement in Government circles yesterday over what was seen as “interference” in political matters.

As Fine Gael ministers, TDs, senators, and MEPs gathered in Garryvoe, east Cork, for their party’s think-in ahead of the Dáil’s return, Mr Higgins’s comments were widely commented upon.

“Of course they were deeply unhelpful,” one senior minister said. “We are trying to hold a public pay deal together with sticky tape and Blu-Tack. This will only heighten the pressure on us to loosen the purse strings even further.”

Speaking publicly, Agriculture Minister Michael Creed hit a most undiplomatic tone, saying he found the President’s decision to comment “quite unusual”.

“This issue has significant currency and has been recognised by Government also,” said Mr Creed. “I think it’s quite unusual [the President’s comments]. No, I’m not surprised or annoyed to be honest with you, it is an issue out there. Look, he has [commented], and his voice is the same as the Government and the Oireachtas.”

Tánaiste Simon Coveney said he does not have “any huge concerns” about Mr Higgins’s interjection.

“I think President Higgins was reflecting concern and a frustration in Government,” he said.

That is why we have had a public sector pay commission looking at Defence Force pay

“That’s why we have improved take-home pay in certain areas on the back of that report, and that’s an ongoing discussion with the Department of Defence and the Defence Forces, as well as obviously the broader improvements in public sector pay which are happening as a result of government decisions.”

Finance Minister Paschal Donohoe said that plans have been put in place to address pay for Defence Forces personnel. He said changes that have been made will see a three-star private’s pay rise from €21,000 to €28,000 and that Defence Forces staff will also benefit from changes to their allowances.

A spokesperson for junior defence minister Paul Kehoe told the Irish Examiner the Government is “actively addressing” pay, recruitment and retention issues in the Defence Forces.

The spokesperson said the existing pay deal will give Defence Forces personnel pay rises of “up to” 7.4% between 2018 when the deal began and 2020, and that “a newly-qualified three-star private now started on over €28,200, compared to €21,000 before these pay increases were introduced”.

The spokesperson said the independent public service pay commission has also recommended “a series of measures” to improve Army, Naval Service, and Air Corps pay. He said the Government has published a proposed implementation plan for the pay rises, and that it is under consideration by Defence Forces representative bodies.

A spokesman for Mr Higgins told the Irish Examiner he stands by what he said, and he comes from a position where he has a specific relationship with the members of the Defence Forces.

“The comments speak for themselves,” the spokesman said.

On Wednesday, Mr Higgins said members of the Defence Forces should have incomes that are sufficient to provide for themselves and their families.

“It is no secret that changes in conditions for serving men and women has brought its own challenges and, I have to say [as] supreme commander, it has brought hardships,” said Mr Higgins.

He said the challenges that should be addressed with “sensitivity and urgency” and those providing the service should be real partners in interpreting and responding to such changes.

“Should this not happen, there is a real danger of a gap opening up between our expressed appreciation of their work and the circumstances we deliver for its practice,” he said. “Serving men and women should have conditions including an income and prospects that are sufficient to provide for themselves and their families.”



With the number of ships tied up set to rise, it will further weaken our defences against the smuggling of drugs, weapons and vulnerable people into this country, while simultaneously eroding our already meagre search-and-rescue capability. Simple steps could quickly stabilise Defence Forces crisis

Cathal Berry Recently retired senior army officer and former head of the Army Ranger wing and the military medical school

Irish Times, August 13, 2019

Ireland’s Defence Forces are currently in the midst of an existential crisis that has significantly undermined critical State services. Almost a quarter of our naval ships are tied up indefinitely, unable to put to sea for want of crew. With this number set to rise, it will further weaken our defences against the smuggling of drugs, weapons and vulnerable people into this country, while simultaneously eroding our already meagre search-and-rescue capability.

The State is spending millions of euro on equipment, but not recognising that it is people who are the critical component in delivering capability. Militarily, the country is vulnerable and massively exposed.

In the past the Air Corps could have picked up some of this slack by increasing aerial surveillance of our seaborne approaches. With a full-blown staff-retention crisis of its own, however, the Air Corps cannot even meet its own commitments, let alone help out its sister service on the high seas.

Meanwhile, the Army’s cyber unit has been disbanded and its participation in the multi-agency National Cyber Security Centre, a critical piece of State infrastructure, has been withdrawn due to staff shortages.

In summary, the current situation is a case study in how not to run an organisation. Spending millions of euro on equipment, but not recognising that it is people who are the critical component in delivering capability. Militarily, the country is vulnerable and massively exposed.

Home-grown crisis

It’s not as if an international military recession has by chance arrived on our shores, however. This crisis is a completely unnecessary, home-grown, man-made disaster. Over the last 30 years military representative associations have been repeatedly denied specific rights to negotiate sectoral side-deals during national pay talks like everybody else. The cumulative effect has been devastating, with Defence Forces pay now a generation behind everyone else – and the gap is widening. Incredibly, the Department of Defence has the resources to tackle this crisis, but instead chooses to return millions of euro unspent every year.

The solution to the Defence Forces crisis is simple. Stop returning surplus revenue and instead use it to firstly stabilise, then definitively solve the problem. Two steps would stabilise the crisis within 24 hours.

Troops are not looking for any preferential treatment whatsoever, they are simply looking for parity with everyone else

Firstly, pay the national minimum wage for additional, rostered security-duty hours worked. Incredibly, troops are expected to work significant additional hours at night and at the weekend for €2 or €3 an hour before tax depending on the day of the week. No other employer in the State would get away with pulling a stunt like this. This is not a wage, it is an insult.

There are fears in Government that a soon to be announced package of pay improvements for the Defence Forces will not meet the expectations. File photograph: Alan Betson/The Irish Times
“Over the last 30 years military representative associations have been repeatedly denied specific rights to negotiate sectoral side-deals during national pay talks like everybody else.” File photograph: Alan Betson

All that military families are asking is that the Taoiseach, who is also Minister for Defence, holds himself to the same standard that he expects from every other employer. Troops are not looking for any preferential treatment whatsoever, they are simply looking for parity with everyone else and for their Government to stop breaking the law.

Secondly, sea-going patrol duty allowance for naval personnel must be increased or made tax-free – as it is for all other State employees working offshore to cover childcare and the additional costs of prolonged family separation while at sea.

Staff from the Marine Institute receive an additional €270 gross per day while at sea, personnel from the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority receive an additional €105 tax-free per day and officers from the Revenue Commissioners maritime section receive an additional €75 tax-free per day. At €49 before tax per day for Naval Service personnel is it any wonder they’re leaving in droves when their counterparts are earning four or five times more?


Once stabilised the crisis can then be fully resolved by a number of measures.

First, the department must engage in good faith with representative associations on the core pay, technical pay and non-pay reviews as part of the Government action plan to tackle the crisis. (Highly unlikely.)

This is not an industrial relations issue per se, but one of national security

Second, an independent statutory pay review body for Defence Forces personnel must be established like the highly effective model in the UK.

Defence Forces on a UN interim force in Lebanon. Photograph: Defence Forces Press Office
Defence Forces on UN interim force in Lebanon. File photograph: Defence Forces Press Office

Third, given the ridiculous levels of micromanagement by civil servants into all areas of the Defence Forces, there is an urgent need for an independent commission on the future of defence like the recent commission on the future of policing.

Fourth, invest in military housing. As a result of the premature closure of more than half of Ireland’s military installations in the last 15 years there is no longer enough accommodation. The practice of troops sleeping in cars, offices or corridors is completely unacceptable. No other uniformed service in this country would be expected to put up with such a situation.

In conclusion, this is not an industrial relations issue per se, but one of national security. With Brexit only 82 days away our Defence Forces should be at the point of maximum strength, not at the point of historic weakness. The cynical exploitation of the commitment and patriotism of Defence Force families must end in order to stem this haemorrhage of experience and talent. Loyalty should be rewarded not punished.

Cathal Berry retired from the Defence forces in 2019. He is a former head of the Army Ranger wing and the military medical school


As President Higgins urges Improvement in Defence Forces Pay and conditions, Minister For Defence and Taoiseach must not be allowed to use BREXIT to delay increases .Pay, Pensions, Allowances, Conditions of Service Must Fully Be Restored IMMEDIATELY

———————————————————–Letter From Dr Ed. Horgan (Comdt. Retired) to Irish Examiner

“While good equipment and training are necessary, good morale and conditions for our soldiers are far more important.”

Dear Editor
In recent times our Irish Defence Forces have been treated with serious neglect bordering on irresponsibility by the Irish Government. This happened previously after World War II, and as a result when Irish soldiers were sent to the Congo in 1960 several soldiers died due to inadequate equipment and training. While some improvements were achieved, when the conflict in Northern Ireland erupted the Defence Forces transport fleet was so unreliable that it took some units weeks to deploy to border areas. Now this is all happening again at a time when Brexit could increase security needs, and international terrorism could bring serious security threats due to US military use of Shannon airport. While good equipment and training are necessary, good morale and conditions for our soldiers are far more important. While the Irish Defence Forces active numbers have been reduced to below 8,800, the Department of Defence has well over 300 civilians not only duplicating many of the responsibilities of serving army officers, but also exercising a stranglehold over most aspects of military management regardless of their lack of military knowledge. Ireland does not have an army and should never need an army unless we planned to invade some other territory. What we should have is an adequate Defence Force capable of ensuring the sovereignty of Irish people and Irish territory. The present strength, equipment and morale of the Irish Defence Forces falls so far short of this vital requirement that our Government leaders could be accused of treasonous behavior. Ireland does not need expensive squadrons of fighter aircraft and battle tanks to defend its sovereignty. We have never had the capacity to defend Ireland by conventional military means and never will have. The only way Ireland can be defended is by actively planning, training and equipping our Defence Forces for guerilla warfare, which is how we got our independence. Our neutrality and island geography are vital parts of this defence. This requires a well-resourced volunteer Permanent Defence Force, backed up by equally well-resources Reserve Defence Forces and Civil Defence organization. Good morale and working conditions are vital towards achieving this, and these three defence elements can also be tasked to do very many other useful services including UN peacekeeping, as hopefully they will never be required to defend our sovereignty, which was achieved at huge cost.
Dr Edward Horgan, (Commandant retired), Newtown, Castletroy, Limerick

———————————————————Withdrawal of Naval Service ships ‘neon sign’ to drug smugglers-Irish Times

Guns and drugs:“The end result is there will be more drugs on the streets of Dublin, PortarlingtonBallina etc. And more guns, since the guns come in with the drugs.”

But decision to purchase 200 million Euro Warship for use “at home and Abroad” remains in place!!!

Conor Gallagher, Irish Times, Tuesday, July 9, 2019, 

The mothballing of almost one-quarter of the Naval Service’s ships will have a significant effect on the State’s ability to stop drug smuggling through Irish waters, security sources say.

A week ago, the head of the Navy, Cmdr Michael Malone, announced the flagship LÉ Eithne and patrol vessel LÉ Orla were being brought into port as the service “cuts its cloth” due to severe manpower shortages.

The LÉ Róisín will be out of service for some months while it is being refitted. Planning documents state the LÉ Eithne and LÉ Orla will likely remain in port for between 15 and 18 months while personnel are recruited and trained to man them. However, informed military sources said the prevailing belief among Naval Service senior staff was the vessels LÉ Eithne and LÉ Orla would never sail again.

“The staffing problems are getting worse, not better, and there is absolutely nothing to suggest that is going to change,” an officer said.

Cmdr Malone’s decision is seen as prudent by most Naval officers due to the lack of staff needed to safely crew the two ships. But there is widespread anger with the Government that the staffing levels have deteriorated to this point.

Both vessels have played a key role in operations to target drug smuggling into Ireland and other countries, particularly as part of the Maritime Analysis and Operations Centre (Maoc), an EU-funded international anti-drugs agency.

Intercepting shipments Ireland is one of seven members of Maoc and the contribution of the Naval Service is highly valued within the organisation in

intercepting drug shipments and gathering intelligence on smugglers passing through Irish waters. Typically, Naval Service ships are tasked with investigating suspicious ships which are spotted by the Air Corps’ two maritime patrol aircraft. They also often receive intelligence from other navies.

Naval Service ships have assisted or led several high-value, anti-smuggling missions in recent years, including the interdiction by UK authorities of a boat carrying 500kg of cocaine in 2018.

In 2008, the LÉ Orla assisted in Operation Seabight, which resulted in the largest drugs seizure in Irish history. About €750 million worth of cocaine was recovered off the coast of Co Cork.

Naval plans state the current patrols of the service’s remaining six vessels will not be altered, meaning the withdrawal of the LÉ Eithne and LÉ Orla and the refit of the LÉ Róisín will leave a large gap in coverage of Ireland’s coasts.

“This is like a neon sign for drug smugglers. The deterrent factor is gone. Everyone will think ‘Paddy is easy, let’s land them on the coast of Kerry’,” a military source said.

Guns and drugs “The end result is there will be more drugs on the streets of Dublin, PortarlingtonBallina etc. And more guns, since the guns come in with the drugs.”

Intelligence suggests maritime smugglers are increasingly travelling around the north of Ireland on their way to mainland Europe in an effort to avoid detection. The LÉ Eithne, which has the longest range of any Naval Service vessel at 13,000km plays a key role in monitoring such vessels.

“Ireland has a massive sea mass. Nine vessels is like having two Garda cars patrol the entire island. Now it’s like having 1½,” an officer said.

The mothballing of the LÉ Eithne would also have implications for the service’s search-and-rescue capabilities, sources said. It is the only ship capable of refuelling helicopters at sea which effectively doubles the range of the Coast Guard’s Sikorsky helicopters.

The ship’s helipad has not been used for many years but helicopters are able to winch a fuel hose up to them while hovering above.

—————————————————————The Taoiseach and Minister for Defence, Leo Varadkar, has said the Naval Service is short staffed and will be “cutting its cloth to suit the measure”.

Does this mean that Foreign fishing vessels and drug sugglers can take advantage?

Will the  purchase of 200 million Euro warship for “service at home and abroad” be abandoned?

Taoiseach acknowledges Naval Service is short staffed

RTE  8 Jul 2019 15:09

The Taoiseach has said the Naval Service is short staffed and will be “cutting its cloth to suit the measure”.

Leo Varadkar said he was briefed on the matter and that crews will now be spread across five ships instead of seven.

His comments follow a letter, published in the Irish Times over the weekend, in which Commodore Michael Malone said the ships’ companies had spoken about the pressure they were under by not having the ships fully manned.

He said this was exacerbated by operating nine ships while only having the manpower for six-and-a-half ships.

Commodore Malone said he had taken the decision that the Naval Service now needed to “cut our cloth to measure”.

He said he would achieve that by placing the LÉ Eithne and LÉ Orla in an operational reserve capacity until “adequate numbers of sufficiently qualified and experienced personnel are available”.

In a response on twitter, Minister of State with Special Responsibility for Defence Paul Kehoe said the ships were in dock for planned maintenance and the crews were redeployed to other vessels.

Fianna Fáil’s Defence spokesperson Jack Chambers said there has been “too much spin and deflection” on the retention crisis in the Defence Forces.

He accused Mr Kehoe of being in a “bunker of denial” over reports that two naval ships had been taken out of service due to insufficient crew numbers.

Minister Kehoe should immediately publish every naval ship maintenance schedule for 2019 to verify his new claims. There’s been too much spin and deflection on this ongoing retention crisis …


Jul 7, 2019



Political row over two docked Naval ships deepens

Minister denied two ships were docked over crew shortages, citing ‘maintenance’


Speaking on RTÉ’s Morning Ireland, Mr Chambers said he was quite surprised that Minister Kehoe would so publically dismiss the concerns of such a senior officer in the Defence Forces.


—————————————————————Two of seven(9?) navy Ships to Be Tied up due to Lack of Staff-Irish Examiner

Will Purchase of 200 Million Euro Warship (MRV) for service “at home and abroad” be scrapped?

“PDforra has repeatedly stated in recent years that the naval service does not have the manpower to run all of its ships and criticised the lack of proper accommodation for sailors at the Naval headquarters in Haulbowline Island.

As a result of poor pay and soaring rents, up to 80 sailors are currently sleeping on ships when off-duty. PDforra president Mark Keane told the committee that on average 11 or 12 were sleeping nightly on each ship.”

Irish Examiner  June 28,2019

A tie-up of two ships in port indefinitely is planned by the Naval Service due to a deepening manpower crisis. Of the three services in the Defence Forces, the naval service is suffering the most from a haemorrhage of personnel for better paid jobs in the public sector.

The Irish Examiner has learned that the nine-ship fleet will be reduced to seven as the navy’s flagship, LÉ Eithne, and coastal patrol vessel LÉ Orla will be taken off operational duty for the foreseeable future. Despite her age, LÉ Ciara, which was purchased from the British in 1988, is to remain on patrol.

Ideally, the navy’s newer P60s — LÉ Róisín, LÉ Niamh, LÉ Samuel Beckett, LÉ James Joyce, and LÉ William Butler Yeats — should each have a crew of 50, but are normally operational with 45. Sources in the naval service have indicated the manpower crisis had often led in recent times to them sailing with crew numbers as low as 34.

Both the LÉ Eithne and LÉ Ciara were due for major refits, but according to a source will receive “minor maintenance to achieve a certain readiness level” in the event they need to be redeployed during a major emergency.

In a statement, the Defence Forces press office said Flag Officer Commanding the naval service, Commodore Michael Malone, was “currently managing the consolidation of naval service assets”. This was “due to ongoing personnel challenges and to Óglaigh na hÉireann’s commitment to valuing its personnel, their welfare and safety”.

It added that military authorities continue to examine all recommendations and options with the aim of maximising the effectiveness of the Maritime Defence and Security Operations. The general secretary of PDforra, which represents enlisted men in the Defence Forces, told an Oireachtas committee yesterday that “the navy is in a dire state”.

Gerard Guinan, whose association represents more than 6,500 enlisted personnel in the Defence Forces, told the Oireachtas committee on Justice, Defence, and Equality that the “naval service was down personnel, probably to its lowest level ever.”

He said the delay in the publication of the Public Service Pay Commission (PSPC) report into possible improvements of allowances for the Defence Forces “has been extremely frustrating” for his members, who are the lowest paid public servants.

“To say we’re angry[about the delay] is an understatement,” said Mr Guinan.

It is expected this report will now be published next Tuesday. Leaks suggest the PSPC is only recommending a small increase in allowances, amounting to 96 cent per day after tax for Defence Forces personnel.

Mr Guinan said: “96 cent a day after tax won’t be enough to save the navy. It is not an overstatement to say we have lost significant numbers of highly qualified and outstanding soldiers, sailors and aircrew over the past few years.

They were forced from a career that they loved and that owed them much more than they ever received. But, they might have stayed if only some earlier intervention had occurred.

PDforra has repeatedly stated in recent years that the naval service does not have the manpower to run all of its ships and criticised the lack of proper accommodation for sailors at the Naval headquarters in Haulbowline Island.

As a result of poor pay and soaring rents, up to 80 sailors are currently sleeping on ships when off-duty. PDforra president Mark Keane told the committee that on average 11 or 12 were sleeping nightly on each ship.

“The older ships do 26-day cycle patrols and are then back in [port] for 16 days,” he said. “The sailors are working onboard 60-70 hours a week and then sleeping on the same ships when they are off duty. They deserve a proper place to go and put their heads down at night.”

————————————————————–Dáil Motion to Restore Defence Forces Pay and Allowances  June 13,2019

Those TDs who Voted With Fine Gael in Dáil against Motion for Restoration of Defence Forces Pay and Allowances:

Minister  Shane Ross Independent Alliance, Dublin Rathdown; Minister Sean Canney, Ind Galway, Minister Katherine Zappone, Ind  Dublin South West


Those TDs who Did not formally Abstain but Went Missing and, therefore, did not vote for Restoration of Defence Forces Pay and Allowances:

Minister  John Halligan (Ind Alliance) Waterford; Minister “Boxer” Moran (Ind Alliance)  Longford Westmeath; Minister Finian Mcgrath, Dublin Artane; Michael Lowry Ind Co Tipperary; Michael  Harty Ind Co Clare;  Noel Grealish Ind Galway; Michael Healy-Rae Ind Co Kerry; Danny Healy-Rae  Ind Co Kerry.


The Private Members Motion Proposed by Fianna Fáil and successfully amended by Sinn Féin was carried in the Dáil by a 2 to 1 majority of Deputies present and voting

The Dáil divided: Tá(Yes), 77; Níl(No), 38; Staon(Abstain), 0.

Despite the clearly expressed will of the Dáil the Government has made clear that it has no intention of implementing the motion.

It can do this because a private members motion is not a Law and is not binding on Government under Dáil rules. If the content of the motion were proposed in Bill, it would be ruled out of order because it impinges on government finances. This is done by the Ceann Chomhairle attaching “a money message” to the proposals. This would still be the case even if the Bill contained proposals to cover the increased state expenditure by new taxation. Opposition deputies and  parties cannot legislate in relation to government finances in any way even if the measure commands a majority in the Dáil.!! So much for Democracy.

The Political Context

But the present government does not have a Dáil majority. Hence, Fianna Fáil is in a position to force the government to implement the contents of the motion or to face defeat in the Dail on the budget (next October) and an immediate General Election thereafter. However the estimates for Government Departments, including Defence, are not specifically subjected to a Dáil vote until the Finance Bill is put to a vote in December next..

The probable next British prime minister says that by October 31,2019,  UK will either have agreed a Brexit Deal with EU or will leave without a deal. It would be very unwise to rely on such declarations as literally anything could happen in the UK in current circumstances.

However, it is well to bear this in mind as the reason given by Fianna Fáil for keeping the minority government in power is the danger of a “no deal” Brexit and the impact that this would have on the Irish economy.

Four by-elections must take place by February 2020 as a result of Dáil deputies being elected to the European Parliament unless there is a General Election before then.

Fine Gael did not win a majority of votes or seats in any of these 4 constituencies in the 2016 General Election.

Government expressions of intention to hold these by-elections should be treated with extreme caution

——————————————————————-Text of Motion

The following motion was moved by Deputy Jack Chambers on Wednesday, 12 June 2019:

That Dáil Éireann:

notes that:

— the approved strength of the Permanent Defence Forces (PDF) currently stands at 9,500;

— at the end of March 2019 there were 8,847 personnel, compared to 9,057 at the end of February 2018;

— 3,200 personnel left the PDF between 2014 and 2018, a figure which equates to 34.7 per cent of the average strength for those years, with 82 per cent of these being premature voluntary retirements;

— the turnover rate in the PDF now stands at 9 per cent overall, with a rate of 14 per cent in the Naval Service;

— there were 256 discharges in the first four months of 2019, by far the largest figure since the reorganisation of 2012; and

— in April 2019 alone, there were 86 discharges, a figure not previously matched in a single month;

further notes:

— the ongoing priority given, by Government, to costly recruitment policies;

— the absence of any retention policy for the Defence Forces;

— the underspend of €92.3 million from 2014 to 2018 in the Defence Estimate (Vote 36);

— the high turnover rate that is leading to the creation of a difficult and challenging training environment for remaining service personnel;

— that some personnel are double- and treble-jobbing in an effort to maintain operational output;

— that insufficient supervision and mentoring combined with poor trained manning levels is leading to unavoidable burnout;

— that there are serious concerns for governance, and the ability to manage risk and ensure the wellbeing of personnel; and

— that recent surveys have illustrated the mental health difficulties, increased stress and low morale being experienced by PDF personnel;

accepts that:

— the impact of operating with reduced numbers is already being felt across the Defence Forces;

— the Army is struggling to fulfil its assigned tasks, domestically and internationally;

— ships are unable to go to sea and aircraft are not flying as a result of personnel shortages;

— defence capability is being seriously undermined; and

— reduced governance increases operational and personnel risk; and

calls for:

— the restoration of military allowances to pre-Financial Emergency Measures in the Public Interest levels, especially in view of the underspend from 2014 to 2018, to include the service commitment scheme for Air Corps pilots and fixed-period promotion for Special Service Officers;

— the restoration of the supplementary pension for post 2013 entrants;

— a review of the PDF organisation to provide for a training and overseas establishment, bringing the PDF personnel numbers up to 10,500 across all ranks and formations/services;

— a permanent and independent Defence Forces pay body to be established;

— Defence Forces representative organisations to be able to take up associate membership of the Irish Congress of Trade Unions;

— greater military expertise in the Department of Defence, who have made some concerning and damaging decisions affecting the Defence Forces;

— the enhancement of the input and discretion of military management in decisions over current and capital spending;

— the implementation of the Working Time Directive, which the Government is currently not implementing properly;

— a clear and defined role for the Reserve Defence Forces, that would enable them to play a meaningful and worthwhile part in support to the PDF; and

— the undertaking of a comprehensive independent review (involving external and international expertise) of defence policy, the Defence Forces and the role of the Department of Defence.

Debate resumed on amendment No. 3:

To delete all words after “Dáil Éireann” and substitute the following:


— that the Irish people shares its great pride in our Defence Forces and the contribution made by the Permanent Defence Forces (PDF) and the Reserve Defence Forces (RDF);

— Ireland’s long and well respected history of participating in overseas missions under United Nations (UN) mandates and acknowledges that the Defence Forces have played a vital role as peacekeepers all over the world, in Europe, Africa and the Middle East in UN and UN-mandated peace support missions and, today, some 673 members of the PDF are serving overseas in various parts of the world;

— those members of the Defence Forces who have made the ultimate sacrifice in the service of the State, including those on overseas peacekeeping missions;

— the dedication and professionalism of the Defence Forces;

— the ongoing implementation of the Government’s White Paper on Defence; and

— the challenges that are faced in relation to recruitment and retention in the Defence Forces;


— that the Department of Defence has civil and military branches, consistent with its constitutional and statutory mandate;

— that the Secretary General heads the civil element while the Chief of Staff heads the military element of the Department of Defence;

— that both civil and military elements provide supports to the Minister for Defence, and that the Chief of Staff has direct and independent access to the Minister for the provision of military advice;

— that ultimately command and management of the Defence Forces is by the Minister for Defence, on behalf of the Government, ensuring appropriate oversight of defence and of the Defence Forces;

— the importance of the White Paper on Defence, which was prepared by joint civil and military steering and working groups, in providing a defence policy in keeping with Ireland’s defence requirements for the period to 2025 and comprehending a developmental and strategic approach to defence provision, including the ongoing modernisation of defence equipment;

— that the finalisation of the White Paper in June 2015 included, at the arrangement of the Minister for Defence, Dáil statements which provided members with an opportunity for final inputs and that, furthermore, there has been engagement with the relevant Oireachtas Joint Committee on any or all aspects of the White Paper as might be desired by Committee members;

— that a key feature of the White Paper is the provision for future-proofing of policy and capabilities through a new process of fixed cycle defence reviews with a Strategic Defence Review to commence in early 2021, while a White Paper Update commenced last year and is being overseen by a joint civil-military steering group;

— that the Government’s commitment to the Defence Forces capability is evidenced through a 2019 provision for gross expenditure of some €1,007 million, an increase of €60 million or 6.4 per cent over 2018, while the capital allocation has increased to €106 million, an increase of 38 per cent on the 2018 allocation;

— that a significant portion of the Defence budget is delegated to the Chief of Staff, to facilitate the exercise of his functions;

— that all major investment decisions are made via joint civil-military work and approved through a joint, co-chaired, civil-military forum and that this collaborative civil-military approach operates successfully within the Department of Defence;

— that this investment will see the replacement and upgrade of significant equipment platforms over the life-time of the White Paper, including an upgrade of the Army’s fleet of armoured personnel carriers (APCs), enhancement of the capabilities of the Army Ranger Wing, replacement of the Air Corps’ Cessna fleet, CASA Maritime Patrol Aircraft and the Naval Service’s flagship LÉ Eithne;

— that there is a sustained programme of investment in barracks infrastructure to improve accommodation and other facilities across the country;

— the range of actions in place for the development of Defence Forces human resources, training, education, family friendly and a range of other supports;

— the development of flexible and adaptive military capabilities as a pragmatic approach to dealing with future uncertainty and the roles assigned, and that capability commitments outlined in the White Paper include maintenance of a PDF establishment of at least 9,500 personnel;

— that specific shortages in specialist areas are being addressed and that work is underway aimed at addressing these particular challenges;

— the efforts to accelerate the rate of recruitment to the RDF within means and resources;

— that in relation to the Working Time Directive, legislation is currently being considered by the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection and civil-military work is underway to achieve a graduated solution which respects the unique operational requirements of a military force; and

— that membership of the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU) by Defence Forces representative associations, as recommended in a recent review of the Defence Forces C&A Scheme, is now under consideration, and that the discussion with ICTU is considering feasibility, taking account of the need to recognise the prohibition on the right to strike, the tasks that Government may require the Defence Forces to undertake, and the necessity that command and control arrangements and military discipline are un-impinged; and

further notes that:

— the focus of pay increases under the Public Service Stability Agreement 2018-2020 has been those on lower pay and that by the end of the current Agreement, the pay scales of all public servants (including members of the Defence Forces), earning under €70,000 per annum, will be restored to pre-Financial Emergency Measures in the Public Interest levels;

— public sector pay policy is determined centrally by the Minister for Public Expenditure and Reform, having regard to public sector pay agreements, and that independent sectoral pay determination bodies, such as one for the Defence Forces, is not consistent with this approach;

— public service pension provisions are laid down in statute and apply across the public service; and

— the Public Service Pay Commission has examined recruitment and retention issues in the defence sector and that its report will be considered by Government and form the basis of engagement with parties to the Public Service Stability Agreement 2018-2020.

– (Minister of State at the Department of Defence)

————————————————————Varadkar,  Fine Gael Minister for Defence And Taoiseach, Refuses Call for full Restoration of Pay, Allowances and Pensions of Defence Forces by Seamus Healy TD in Dáil at Leaders Questions

DEFENCE FORCE Personnel must be treated no less Favourably than Gardaí and Nurses—Healy

Full Debate

Deputy Seamus Healy (Independent Deputy, Chair of Workers and Unemployed Action, Co Tipperary)

The Taoiseach is the Minister for Defence and is responsible to the Dáil and the public for the state of the Defence Forces. During the recent local election campaign, the undermining of our Defence Forces  by government was one of the most frequently raised issues on the doorstep. It is clear that the policy being pursued by the Taoiseach and his Government, which that commenced with the so-called reorganisation of the Defence Forces and the closure of barracks in 2012, has led to a crisis in the service. There have been significant reductions in numbers, pay, allowances, pensions and conditions of service. There is low morale, anxiety, increased stress and mental health difficulties among serving personnel.

On 1 March this year under the Taoiseach’s watch, there were 210 fewer serving personnel than on 1 March last year. Some 3,200 personnel left the Defence Forces between 2014 and 2018. In the first four months of this year, there were 256 discharges. Staff shortages mean that ships are unable to go to sea and aircraft are unable to fly. This is a picture of a service that is not fit for purpose due to the deliberate policy of this Government.

Please do not tell us that we do not have the money to resource and pay our Defence Forces properly. Ireland is the eighth richest country in the world. We know that the top 10% of financial asset holders have €50 billion more than they had at peak boom levels in 2006, yet they are not asked to pay a single cent in tax on that windfall. We know that the top 10% of income recipients pay a smaller proportion of their incomes in tax than the lowest 10%. In today’s edition of the Irish Examiner, Social Justice Ireland confirmed that the poor in this country are subsidising the rich through tax reliefs.

I wish to take this opportunity to commend the community group, Respect and Loyalty, which is campaigning to raise awareness about the plight of our Defence Forces and is lobbying for the restoration of pay, allowances and pensions.

The Taoiseach is the Minister for Defence. In view of the crisis affecting the Defence Forces and the resulting national danger that he and his Government have allowed to develop, why has the matter of allowances not been addressed in line with allowances in other public sector bodies? Will the Taoiseach fully restore to pre-2008 levels the pay, allowances, conditions of service and pensions of serving and retired members of the Defence Forces immediately?


The Taoiseach and Minister for Defence


I thank the Deputy very much for raising this important issue. I confirm to the House that the Cabinet yesterday approved the deployment of the Army ranger wing to the UN mission in Mali. That will require a motion of the House, so I ask for the House’s support for that. It is the first time in nearly ten years that the rangers have been deployed in this way. It is something that the Defence Forces very much welcome. It is a big part of our peacekeeping efforts and our commitment to the UN, but it also will help them to maintain and develop their skills. I know it has been very much welcomed by the Defence Forces.

We are investing in our Defence Forces. The budget for defence this year is €50 million higher than last year. What does that mean? It means new vessels. Our fleet has never been as modern as it is now. It means new aircraft—–

Deputy Bobby Aylward (Fianna Fáil, Carlow-Kilkenny)


They have no personnel, though.

The Taoiseach


—–including fishery protection aircraft that are arriving this year.

Deputy Mattie McGrath(Rural Independent, Co Tipperary)


The personnel are all leaving.

The Taoiseach


It means improvement to our barracks. It means new equipment. It also means increased pay, pay restoration and increased pensions. It is not the case that money is handed back at the end of the year—–

Deputy Eamon Scanlon (Fianna Fáil, Sligo-Leitrim)


It is.

Deputy Bobby Aylward  (FF)


The Defence Forces need personnel if they are to work.


The Taoiseach and Minister for Defence


—–even though that has been claimed by some. Recruitment is going very well but retention is not. I absolutely acknowledge that a large number of people are leaving our Defence Forces for various reasons, not least the fact that, because they are so well skilled, their skills are very much sought after in the private sector where there are also major skill shortages and labour shortages because of full employment.

When it comes to the issue of pay – I acknowledge that pay is an issue for a lot of members of our Defence Forces – the public sector stability agreement, the deal that we did with ICTU and all the trade unions that covers 300,000 public servants, applies to the Defence Forces as well. That means ongoing pay restoration. For the vast majority of public servants, including the vast majority of people in the Defence Forces, they will have their pay fully restored by October of next year. That is already happening in tranches.

However, the Deputy is asking me to single out one group, the Defence Forces, and fully restore their pay, pensions and allowances before everyone else’s. While that might appeal to me as the Minister for Defence, I could not possibly do that as Taoiseach because that would be totally unfair to all the other public servants—–

Deputy Mattie McGrath (Rural Independent, Co Tipperary)


Appoint a Minister.

The Taoiseach and Minister for Defence


—–including civil servants, local authority workers, nurses, teachers, doctors, all the people who work in this House and all the people who work in the public service all over the country.

Deputy Barry Cowen (FF Offaly,  Fianna Fáil Front Bench Spokesperson on Public Expenditure and Reform)


This situation is a little bit worse (in PDF) than the Garda’s.

Deputy Mattie McGrath(Rural Independent)


Get out the violin.

The Taoiseach


It would simply be not right or fair to restore Defence Forces pay and pensions fully ahead of everyone else in the public service.

Deputy Bobby Aylward(FF)


They were (right and fair) for the teachers and gardaí.


The Taoiseach and Minister for Defence


Everyone must have restoration happening at the same time. Nor would it be affordable to do what Deputy Healy is asking. The public sector pay bill is nearly €18 billion a year. A 2% increase alone is €360 million. We have heard the advice and the criticisms from the Irish Fiscal Advisory Council telling us that we are increasing spending too fast. The Opposition needs to hear that advice as well. If we are going to listen to that advice and heed it and keep spending increases where they should be at around 4% or 5% per year—–

Deputy Barry Cowen (FF,  Fianna Fáil Front  Bench Spokesperson on Public Expenditure and Reform)


The Taoiseach said that everything would come from future revenues.

Deputy Brendan Howlin (Labour Party, Co Wexford)


Or by cutting taxes.

The Taoiseach


—–we need the Opposition to stop demanding additional spending everyday.

Deputy Barry Cowen (FF)


The Government tells us that its overruns will be covered by future revenues.

The Taoiseach


The Opposition—–

Deputy Micheál Martin (Leader of Fianna Fáil)


The Taoiseach is throwing the kitchen sink at—–

An Ceann Comhairle


The Taoiseach without interruption, please.

Deputy Barry Cowen  (FF)


The Government’s forecasts are not credible.

The Taoiseach


The Opposition has a responsibility as well. Government has heard that message. We are going to heed it. We are going to try to keep spending increases under control—–

Deputy Barry Cowen (FF)


The party of fiscal rectitude, of course.

Deputy Micheál Martin (FF Leader))


The Government should keep telling itself that.

The Taoiseach and Minister for Defence


—–at around 4% or 5% this year.

Deputy Barry Cowen (FF)


That is going down well.

The Taoiseach and Minister for Defence


We also need the Oireachtas to get that too because we cannot get a budget, Estimates or Supplementary Estimates through, if they are necessary—–

Deputy Brendan Howlin(Labour leader))


But there will be €1 billion in tax cuts.

The Taoiseach


—–without the support of this House. We also need this House to reorientate its attitude to these things as well and come with us in trying to keep public spending under control.

Deputy Micheál Martin (FF Leader)


It is the Government that made all the promises.

Deputy Barry Cowen(FF)


Go to Mullingar, never mind Mali.

Deputy Pat Deering (Fine Gael, Carlow-Kilkenny)


Does Deputy Cowen remember the Galway tent?

Deputy Barry Cowen(FF)


That is gone. This Government will be gone one day, too. It will not hang on as easily as it did last time.


Deputy Seamus Healy  (WUAG, Co Tipperary) Replies to Taoiseach

Time and again, we have heard the mantra of the public service pay agreement. It has been repeated ad nauseam this afternoon. I remind the Taoiseach that, in November 2016, the Government gave the average garda an extra €4,000 per annum through an increase in rent allowance and other concessions under a €50 million deal.

I remind the Taoiseach that when he and his Government dealt with the nursing dispute under the public service pay agreement, the nursing recruitment crisis forced them to back down and make significant concessions to nurses in pay and allowances. We have a similar situation in our Defence Forces at present. The Taoiseach has acknowledged the significant difficulties that exist in the Defence Forces. The cases of the gardaí and the nurses offer the Government a clear precedent in dealing with the issues in the Defence Forces. All it takes is political will on the part of the Government to ensure the Defence Forces are properly paid and get their proper allowances. It is a matter of political will for the Government to ensure pay and allowances are restored in full immediately. The Government should do this now.

The Taoiseach and Minister for Defence


It is not simply “a matter of political will”. As a Government, we need to see the bigger picture.

Deputy Seamus Healy(WUAG)


The Government has done it twice already (for other groups).


The Taoiseach


There were disputes with the gardaí and two of the nurses’ unions. Those disputes were resolved following negotiations and, in the end, in the Labour Court. In resolving those disputes, we needed to make sure we did not bring down the entire public sector pay agreement. We cannot afford to bring it down. We are trying to resolve the Defence Forces pay dispute. We asked the Public Sector Pay Commission to examine issues like allowances that are specific to the Defence Forces. The commission has reported. We have the report and we will bring it to the Cabinet in the next couple of weeks. I hope that will be adequate to resolve this issue. We cannot provide a fast track to pay restoration and additional allowances to one group of public servants without accepting that it will have a knock-on effect across the board.

Deputy Seamus Healy (WUAG)


It was done for two groups already.

The Taoiseach


It will have a knock-on effect across the board. The public sector pay bill is €17 billion or €18 billion a year. An increase of 2% across the board would amount to €360 million. That is not something we can afford to do.

Deputy Seamus Healy(WUAG)


The Defence Forces are entitled to the same treatment (as the Gardaí and the Nurses).


Categories: Uncategorized

United States and Britain Rescued Europe from Hitler’s Nazis. Complete Rubbish!A Capitalist Fairy Tale!

Alban Maginness: Why Red Army’s role in bringing Down the Third Reich must not be overlooked—-Belfast Telegraph

After all, without the Russians there would never have been a successful D-Day landing at all.

The defeat of the Nazis owes much more to the Soviet Union’s victory at Stalingrad in February 1943.

It is estimated that almost 27 million Russians died in the Second World War. That is a staggering figure compared to the combined losses of the Allies, including Britain, France and the USA.

It is incontrovertible that the defeat of Hitler’s armies in Russia marked the definitive turning point against the Germans in the war.

Without the courage and determination of the Red Army, the Nazis would not have been defeated.

The Allied invasion of France in 1944 was therefore a follow-on from the Soviet victory over the German army.


Full Article:

————————————————————-Germany Was Defeated On The Eastern Front, Not Normandy-Oriental Review

Open Dialogue Research Journal

Fuller Discussion below

Germany Was Defeated On The Eastern Front, Not Normandy
Written by Eric MARGOLIS on 10/06/2019

Germany Was Defeated On The Eastern Front, Not Normandy

————————————————————–Russian Army reached Berlin First

1,100,000 Soviet personnel who took part in the capture of Berlin from 22 April to 2 May 1945 were awarded with the Medal “For the Capture of Berlin“.

Russian Army and East European guerrilla forces including Serbo-Croat Partisans led by Tito had already broken the back of the German Army before D-Day.

From Wilson John Haire on Aubane: 37% of Europe is Russian and the Red Army swept through the whole of Eastern Europe, including
taking Austria. Europe also takes in a large part of Turkey. 51 nations compose Europe. Therefore When Britain claims they liberated Europe they are giving a false impressions.

Russia’s most popular newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda asked: “Why does the West want everyone to think that their front wasn’t just the second front, but the main one?”. It added that millions of Soviet soldiers had been killed while the USSR was waiting for the US and Britain to open a second western front since 1943

The hope was that leaving the Russians to fight the Nazis alone in Europe for as long as possible would fatally weaken Stalin’s regime (like it had done with the Czar in WW1) and lead to the collapse of Stalinism. It was a spectacular miscalculation.

Discussion on Cedar Lounge Revolution

Paddy Healy :It has been a good productive discussion despite initial misunderstandings. Read On to the end !!!

yourcousin June 8,2019

Do we really want to draw information from a web site that uses friends of Richard Spencer as sources? I mean we can, but not sure that will end well.

FergusD  June 9 2016

Who is Richard Spencer? Anyway, regardless the data comes from elsewhere and seems genuine. The information about German casualties on the Eastern Front in WW2 are incontrovertible surely? I don’t attribute Soviet success to Stalin, rather despite Stalin and the hideous apparatus. Seems clear though that people in the West have a skewed view of WW2 and this may help facilitate WW3.

Paddy Healy June 9, 2019

I agree Fergus. Stalin showed his real colours in the post war arrangements. He ordered the French an Italian Communists parties, with their strong Résistance credentials, to join capitalist governments. He wanted capitalism stabilised in the big European Capitalist countries. If capitalism had been overthown in these, it would have quickly led to the overthrow of the privileged Russian bureaucracy which he represented. Of course, it was this privileged bureaucracy itself that restored capitalism in Russia eventually. Among other things, they wished to bequeath their property to their offspring. Trotsky,of course, had predicted this in the 20s and thirties.

Worldby Storm  June 10, 2019

Apologies for joining this late but been tied up with other stuff. I think it’s absolutely reasonable that both are seen as pivotal. The contribution of the Soviets – or more particularly their soldiers – was of unquestionable significance – though it’s also worth noting how the bizarre machinations at the point where the Nazi’s invaded the USSR despite the Soviet’s having intelligence about same and Stalin dismissing that intelligence was a massive self-inflicted blow. It’s also important I feel to keep in mind lend-lease and so on to the USSR from 1941 onwards which was also central to the Soviet war effort at a point where it was necessary. Similarly the Eastern front wore away the Nazi regime. That said, the western front was crucial too, functionally the Nazi’s couldn’t fight a war on two fronts (or effectively three given the fact of US/UK etc invasion of North Africa and later Italy). Moreover let’s not underestimate how difficult a channel crossing/invasion was. I’ve read some of the thinking on whether an invasion was possible in 1943 and at a push it might have been, but the means of transporting soldiers to the beaches of Normandy were very limited. A failed invasion then in the West would have been a significant blow to the efforts to push back the Nazi’s.

In other words it’s not all or nothing. D-Day was very important, the Eastern front was very important. North Africa and on to Egypt was very important. All built up into a coherent whole whereby the states involved pushed back against the Nazi’s. Incontrovertibly the Eastern front was key in significantly destroying the Nazi war machine but then again, and more contentiously so was the bombing of Germany by the US/UK, etc. And it’s worth keeping in mind that the Eastern front was a different sort of a war with – frankly, from the Nazi perspective, a racial component (and from the Russian perspective an existential one) almost entirely lacking from the other fronts.

I’d worry that any single element is taken in isolation. D-Day succeeded in no small part because of the pressure on the Nazi’s in the East. The challenge in the East was lessened in 1944 by the pressure in France. But of course the fight up the Italian penninsula and North Africa had also necessitated the stretching of more scant than might be thought Nazi manpower. I don’t believe all the myths around Britain standing alone, but it was an essential component in the push-back bridging the gap in the west until the US was politically able to join the conflict.

I’ve a relative too who fought on the beaches at D-Day and survived. Their contribution, that of the Soviet army soldiers and so on were all in their own way of supreme importance, each piece building up to the successful defeat of the Nazi’s.

Response by Paddy Healy  June 10,2019

D-Day It has been a good productive discussion despite initial misunderstandings. I think this is a balanced summary by WBS:”I’d worry that any single element is taken in isolation. D-Day succeeded in no small part because of the pressure on the Nazi’s in the East. The challenge in the East was lessened in 1944 by the pressure in France. But of course the fight up the Italian penninsula and North Africa had also necessitated the stretching of more scant (resources)than might be thought Nazi manpower. I don’t believe all the myths around Britain standing alone, but it was an essential component in the push-back bridging the gap in the west until the US was politically able to join the conflict.” I know we can’t mention all forces which contributed but I have a soft spot for the Résistance, The Italian Partisans, Tito’s Serbo-Croat guerillas and the greek anti-nazi fighters.
I initiated the discussion sharply in anger at the media attempt to portray the victory over Nazism as a purely US and British affair
I am of an age that it was in the first world war that my uncle and my mothers first cousins fought in the British Army. I think it was YOUR COUSIN who remarked that it was amazing how his uncle and many others retained their caring human approach having participated in such a savage conflict. My ex-BA relatives had the opportunity to serve the Irish people through membership of the IRA in the war of independence. The military training and war experience they received in the British Army was invaluable in training raw recruits to the IRA. Is olc an ghaoth ná séideann maitheas do dhuine éigin !!!!! Thanks to all for the constructive discussion.




– A Facebook post by Seamus Martin, former ‘Irish Times’ correspondent in the USSR and Russia:

It has been sad to see the bickering between the West and Russia on the 75th Anniversary of D Day.  Back in 1944 they were allies in the fight against Hitler and although Soviet Forces were not involved in the Normandy Landings they were busy elsewhere. In fact they were very busy indeed.

I have a personal interest in the matter as I knew some of the Soviet veterans of the conflict when I lived in Moscow as the correspondent of the Irish Times.  Some 26 million Soviet citizens lost their lives in that war. In the siege of Leningrad alone more people died than the combined fatal casualties of the United States and the United Kingdom for the entire war.


Of the young men born in 1922 and 1923 who fought in that war, 97% lost their lives. One of the three percent who survived was Yuri Vyzun who fought at Stalingrad, at the huge tank battle of Kursk which was probably the real turning point of the war and who fought street-by-street and house-by-house in the capture of Berlin in 1945. He arrived outside the Reich’s Chancellery in time to see the body of Joseph Goebbels lying in a bomb crater.


Much has been made of the mass rape of German women by Soviet troops at that time and there is no doubt that  these horrible events took place but I couldn’t bring myself to include Yuri in that category when I met him in his apartment in suburban Moscow. He was devoid of braggadocio, it took me some time to convince him to wear his war medals for a photograph and he was far more interested in showing me pictures of his four grandchildren than talking about his exploits in Stalingrad or Berlin.


My estimation of his character was borne out later by the eminent historian Antony Beevor who, in the introduction to his definitive history of the fall of Berlin, wrote: “One important lesson is that one should be extremely wary of any generalization concerning the conduct of individuals. Extremes of human suffering and even degradation can bring out the best as well as the worst in human nature. Human behaviour to a large extent mirrors the utter unpredictability of life or death. Many Soviet troops, especially in the frontline formations, unlike those who came behind, often behaved with great kindness to German civilians……..”


Yuri served in one of those frontline formations.  He spoke well of the allies from other countries especially the Americans after the German capital had been divided into US, British, French and Soviet Zones. “If one of our fellows got drunk and strayed into the American sector he would be well looked after. They called all of us “Ivan” or “Comrade” and they would make sure the offender would get back safely into the Soviet sector.”

As for the British, the class system was particularly evident. “The soldiers were good to us but their officers treated us like dirt.”


Yuri didn’t take part in the great parade in Red Square on the 50th Anniversary of Victory in Europe in 1995.  He had become disillusioned with those who came to power in his country and described himself as an “anti-communist” but the real reason he stayed away from the ceremony was: “It’s just that I can’t march well any more”.


His disillusionment with the system began with Leonid Brezhnev’s writings on the battle of Stalingrad. “He was claiming all sorts of things mainly trying to show himself in a good light. But I was there so I knew his claims were wrong.”


Like many of his comrades in arms he had also been a comrade in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union but he resigned his membership after the storming of the TV Tower by special forces in Vilnius, Lithuania, in 1990.


“We discovered that our system had been close in some ways to the Fascists we defeated but I am still proud we defeated the Fascists”.  It is a chastening thought that I am now older than Yuri was when I met him in 1995 and I imagine he has since died.


I know that another veteran I met died in the first year of this new century. Her name was Valentina Flegontovna Kravchenko and her apartment was closer to the centre of Moscow than Yuri’s. Many women of her age decorated their flats with the holy icons of the Russian Orthodox Church but Valentina did not. The walls of her little place  bore photographs of warplanes. Valentina had been a bomber pilot.  She served in an Air Force regiment that was entirely female from its Commander Marina Raskova through to the pilots to the mechanics and those who worked in the kitchens.


Valentina was shot down twice and made her way back through enemy lines to her unit in order to fight on. Unlike Yuri she had remained loyal to the old regime and held Boris Yeltsin in contempt as a traitor to the cause.


Further north as that 50th anniversary drew near I visited groups of young Russians at a place called Myasnoy Bor near the ancient city of Novgorod. They were digging for the bodies of soldiers who had been trapped in the swamplands by the advancing Germans. A young woman told me: “I might find someone else’s grandfather and someone else might find mine.”

One of the things they found in one of the little bakelite cylinders worn by Russian soldiers instead of “dogtags” was a short letter. It read:



When I returned from Myasnoy Bor my landlady Marina Ivanovna told me her own story of the war although she was not old enough to be a combatant. “My mother had died before the war started. We lived in a village in Western Russia and knew that the Germans would reach us very quickly after they invaded. My father called us together and told us that since our house was the biggest in the village the Germans would make it their headquarters. So we burned our house down and joined the partisans in the forests.”


It struck me that Mr. Hitler was a very silly man to take on people who would burn down their own house and it seems that my view was shared by Field Marshal Montgomery.


In a memorable statement to the House of Lords on May 30th 1963 he said:




The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune and often referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history. The operation began the liberation of German-occupied France (and later western Europe) from Nazi control, and laid the foundations of the Allied victory on the Western Front. (after Germany had been defeated on the Eastern Front-PH)

Why does Russia see D-Day differently to the West?

Analysis by Steve Rosenberg, BBC News, Moscow

When countries argue about the present, they often disagree about the past, too. Take D-Day – British Prime Minister Theresa May called it the day that “determined the fate of generations to come”. But Russia’s Foreign Ministry sees things rather differently.

“The Normandy landings did not have a decisive impact on the outcome of World War Two,” said its spokesperson Maria Zakharova this week. “It was inevitable after the Red Army victories at Stalingrad and Kursk.”

Russia’s most popular newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda asked: “Why does the West want everyone to think that their front wasn’t just the second front, but the main one?”. It added that millions of Soviet soldiers had been killed while the USSR was waiting for the Allies to open the second front.

Perhaps if President Putin had been invited to join the D-Day commemorations in Normandy, Russia’s viewpoint might be more positive.

One Russian TV presenter declared: “There wouldn’t even have been a Normandy landing if it hadn’t been for the Soviet soldiers who’d died from 1941 onwards in the fight against fascism.”

Moscow had been fighting German forces in the east for almost three years by the time of the D-Day operations that ultimately led to the liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany.

Russia lost more than 25 million lives in what it calls the Great Patriotic War – more than any other nation. The country holds a massive military parade every year to commemorate the anniversary of the end of World War Two and remember the role of Soviet troops.


4 July 1945

U.S. troops occupying Berlin. The army of the Soviet Union conquered Berlin in April/May 1945. Two months later the Western Allied troops also entered the city. On 4 July 1945, the AmericanIndependence Day, U.S. troops officially took charge of their occupation sector in southwest Berlin.

Allies suffered 10,000 total casualties on D-Day itself

THE Long  Foundation’s list isn’t complete, but says that it’s the best figure that we have to date. Of the 4,414 Allied deaths on June 6th, 2,501 were Americans and 1,913 were Allies. If the figure sounds low, Long says, it’s probably because we’re used to seeing estimates of the total number of D-Day casualties, which includes fatalities, the wounded and the missing.

While casualty figures are notoriously difficult to verify—not all wounded soldiers are counted, for example—the accepted estimate is that the Allies suffered 10,000 total casualties on D-Day itself. The highest casualties occurred on Omaha beach, where 2,000 U.S. troops were killed, wounded or went missing; at Sword Beach and Gold Beach, where 2,000 British troops were killed, wounded or went missing; and at Juno beach, where 340 Canadian soldiers were killed and another 574 wounded.



Battle of Berlin

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For the RAF bombing campaign, see Battle of Berlin (air).

Battle of Berlin
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
The Brandenburg Gate amid the ruins of Berlin, June 1945
Date 16 April – 2 May 1945
(2 weeks and 2 days)
Location BerlinGermany
52°31′N 13°23′ECoordinates52°31′N 13°23′E
Result Soviet victory

·         Suicide of Adolf Hitler and deaths of other high-ranking Nazi officials

·         Unconditional surrender of the Berlin city garrison on 2 May

·         Capitulation of German forces still fighting the battle outside Berlin on 8/9 May, following the unconditional surrender of all German forces

·         End of World War II in Europe and the destruction of Nazi Germany

Soviets occupy what would become East Germany during the Partition of Germanylater that year.
·          Soviet Union

·          Poland

Commanders and leaders
Joseph Stalin·         1st Belorussian Front:

·         Georgy Zhukov

2nd Belorussian Front:

·         Konstantin Rokossovsky

1st Ukrainian Front:

·         Ivan Konev

Adolf Hitler ·         Army Group Vistula:

·         Gotthard Heinrici

·         Kurt von Tippelskirch [a]

Army Group Centre:

·         Ferdinand Schörner

Berlin Defence Area:

·         Hellmuth Reymann

·         Helmuth Weidling [b]

·         Rudolf Sieckenius 

·         Robert Ritter von Greim

·         Total strength:

o    2,300,000 soldiers (+155,900–200,000
Polish Army in the East)[1][2]

·         6,250 tanks and SP guns[2]

·         7,500 aircraft[2]

·         41,600 artillery pieces.[3][4]

·         For the investment and assault on the Berlin Defence Area: about 1,500,000 soldiers[5]

·         Total strength:

·         36 divisions[6]

·         766,750 soldiers[7]

·         1,519 AFVs[8]

·         2,224 aircraft[9]

·         9,303 artillery pieces[7][c]

·         In the Berlin Defence Area: about 45,000 soldiers, supplemented by the police force, Hitler Youth, and 40,000 Volkssturm[5][d]

Casualties and losses
·         Archival research
(operational total)·         81,116 dead or missing[10]·         280,251 sick or wounded·         1,997 tanks and SPGs destroyed[11]·         2,108 artillery pieces·         917 aircraft[11]
·         Estimated:
92,000–100,000 killed·         220,000 wounded[12][e]·         480,000 captured[13]·         Inside Berlin Defence Area:·         about 22,000 military dead·         22,000 civilian dead[14]



·         v

·         t

·         e

Eastern Front


·         v

·         t

·         e

Berlin Offensive


Part of a series on the
History of Berlin
Margraviate of Brandenburg (1157–1806)
Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918)
German Empire (1871–1918)
Free State of Prussia (1918–1947)
Weimar Republic (1919–1933)
·         1920s Berlin

·         Greater Berlin Act

Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
·         Welthauptstadt Germania

·         Bombing of Berlin in World War II

·         Battle of Berlin

West Germany and East Germany (1945–1990)
·         West Berlin and East Berlin

·         Berlin Wall

·         Berlin Blockade (1948–1949)

·         Berlin Crisis of 1961

·         “Ich bin ein Berliner” (1963)

·         “Tear Down This Wall” (1987)

Federal Republic of Germany(1990–present)
·         History of Germany and History of Europe
See also
·         Timeline of Berlin
·         v

·         t

·         e

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was one of the last major offensives of the European theatre of World War II.[f]

Following the Vistula–Oder Offensive of January–February 1945, the Red Army had temporarily halted on a line 60 km (37 mi) east of Berlin. On 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz. The first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, under the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici.

When the Soviet offensive resumed on 16 April, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Red Army encircled the city after successful battles of the Seelow Heights and Halbe. On 20 April 1945, Hitler’s birthday, the 1st Belorussian Frontled by Marshal Georgy Zhukov, advancing from the east and north, started shelling Berlin’s city centre, while Marshal Ivan Konev‘s 1st Ukrainian Front broke through Army Group Centre and advanced towards the southern suburbs of Berlin. On 23 April General Helmuth Weidlingassumed command of the forces within Berlin. The garrison consisted of several depleted and disorganised Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, along with poorly trained Volkssturm and Hitler Youth members. Over the course of the next week, the Red Army gradually took the entire city.

On April 30th, Hitler committed suicide (with several of his officials also committing suicide shortly afterwards). The city’s garrison surrendered on 2 May but fighting continued to the north-west, west, and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May (9 May in the Soviet Union) as some German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets.[15]


Second Front. In November, 1943, Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt met together in Teheran, Iran, to discuss military strategy and post-warEurope. Ever since the Soviet Union had entered the war, Stalin had been demanding that the Allies open-up asecond front in Europe.

Second FrontIn November, 1943, Joseph StalinWinston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt met together in Teheran, Iran, to discuss military strategy and post-war Europe. Ever since the Soviet Union had entered the war, Stalin had been demanding that the Allies open-up a second front in Europe. Churchill and Roosevelt argued that any attempt to land troops in Western Europe would result in heavy casualties. Until the Soviet’s victory at Stalingrad in January, 1943, Stalin had feared that without a second front, Germany would defeat them.

Stalin, who always favoured in offensive strategy, believed that there were political, as well as military reasons for the Allies’ failure to open up a second front in Europe. Stalin was still highly suspicious of Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt and was worried about them signing a peace agreement with Adolf Hitler. The foreign policies of the capitalist countries since the October Revolution had convinced Stalin that their main objective was the destruction of the communist system in the Soviet Union. Stalin was fully aware that if Britain and the USA withdrew from the war, the Red Army would have great difficulty in dealing with Germany on its own.

Categories: Uncategorized